Archaeological evidence proves that the Baluba had settlements around the lakes and marshes of the Upemba Depression by the fifth century CE. The evidence suggesting an advanced Iron Age society by then comes from multiple sites, and these are among the best developed archaeological records in Central Africa. The Kamilambian, Kisalian and Kabambian series of evidence has been dated to be from 5th to 14th-century, suggesting a settled stable Luba culture over many centuries. Of these, the Kisalian period (8th to 11th century) pottery and utensils found, were crafted with extraordinary excellence. The finds dated to pre-8th century by modern dating methods are iron objects or pottery, thereafter copper objects appear.
Pierre de Maret (1979), Luba Roots: The First Complete Iron Age Sequence in Zaire, Current Anthropology, University of Chicago Press, volume 20, number 1 (Mar., 1979), pages 233-235